The MDGs established in 2000 by international agreement are probably the most significant major attempt to defeat poverty ever undertaken. The UN set out eight development goals to reduce global poverty substantially by 2015. They are viewed as basic human rights – the rights of every person on earth to health, education, shelter and security. Reasons for variable progress towards achieving the Millennium Development Goal targets can be determined through examining different regions. These include Sub-Saharan Africa, East Asia, South Asia and Latin America and the Caribbean.
Firstly, Sub-Saharan Africa has made little progress towards achieving the Millennium Development Goal targets. Primarily, this could be due to persistent poverty. In Sub-Saharan Africa, 48.5% of the population is living on less than $1.25 per day, and 69.9% on less than $2.00 per day. With a little over 910 million people living in the region, this places around 637 million Africans below the poverty line. This poverty is fuelled by limited progress in economic development due to a lack of trade and participation in globalisation. There is no headquarters of a TNC in Sub-Saharan Africa. Furthermore, particular problems such as a lack of adequate nutrition have been exacerbated by war, conflict, drought, desertification and population growth. No less than 28 Sub-Saharan African states have been at war since 1980, as pointed out by international development organization, ID21. Lastly, low levels of medical infrastructure and personnel has prevented Sub-Saharan Africa from being able to begin achieving the Millennium Development Goal targets such as reducing child mortality and improving maternal health.
Secondly, it can be observed that East Asia has been able to progress to some targets effectively but has fallen short of reaching others. The continued growth of China’s economy has supported development throughout eastern Asia. Thus, there have been clear benefits from growing wealth and jobs in China as industrialisation and urbanisation helps to explain falling poverty. Investment in doctors and hospitals, plus an increase in urban births helps to explain a reduction in maternal mortality. However, China’s ageing population has led to a reduction in the agricultural workforce, hence the risk of increased hunger. Despite the risk, as a result of progress in China, the extreme poverty rate in Eastern Asia has dropped from 61 per cent in 1990 to only 4 per cent in 2015. The Caucasus and Central Asia, Eastern Asia, Latin America and South-Eastern Asia have reached the hunger target, due mainly to rapid economic growth in the past two decades. China alone accounts for almost two thirds of the total reduction in the number of undernourished people in the developing regions since 1990.
In contrast to this, in South Asia, India’s population is continuing to grow rapidly, and due to the relative lack of urbanisation in India, villages in rural areas receive minimal assistance in feeding more people, hence a failure to meet the target eradicating extreme hunger and poverty, exemplified through the 2007 – 2010 Indian food crisis. Nevertheless, an increased amount of aid and investment in India may explain good education progress. Furthermore, in the early 2000s, low oil prices massively boosted the development of countries with a large reliance on imported oil, such as India. However, Countries such as Pakistan and Afghanistan have suffered from war and conflict, which may limit or reverse progress. South Asia has made the most progress in reducing its infant mortality rate (IMR); this could be due to both increased government spending, as the previously high IMR was seen as a major problem, restricting economic growth and social development, and new technologies, which can easily be distributed to the large population. There has been surprisingly poor progress expect for child mortality, it could be suggested that this is due to a large urban slum poverty and hunger. There is further possibly a lack of political will to address the remainder of the problem.
Overall, it can be concluded that the variable progress towards achieving the Millennium Development Goal targets in different areas of the world can be put down to levels of development, war and conflict, industrialisation and economic growth. The region which has reached the most targets and has achieved the most progress has been East Asia. This region has undergone rapid economic development and industrialisation as well as little conflict. The region which has made the least progress has been Sub-Saharan Africa due to a lack of trade, limited participation in globalisation as well as suffering from large amounts of conflict and physical difficulties.
By: Ashlee Pitts.
This year, I participated in the Geneva International Model United Nations Annual Conference for the second time. Based on my first experience and the incredible memories that I hold dear to this day, it came of absolutely no surprise to me that for some students, this annual conference was actually their third, fourth and even fifth time having a role in the conference.
The opportunities and potential for global networking, cross-cultural exchanges, mock negotiations and enhancements in written and verbal communication were enough to draw me in. Adding in the fact that this week-long conference is held on United Nations’ territory in the beautiful city of Geneva undoubtedly made applying to be a journalist at this Conference one of the easiest decisions that I have ever made. There is an extraordinary feeling that fills me up when I step foot in the United Nations office in Geneva. I feel that I am a part of something special and unifying. Everyone in that building has passion and is committed to global affairs and the issues that are of great concern. They are not just talking about it over coffee. They are putting in the actual work required to reach concrete solutions. How could I not be inspired by that?
I want to get involved. I need to make a difference, somehow. Walking through the corridors and passing by so many different faces and mother-tongues, there is a feeling of incredible unity even amongst complete strangers because there is this inherent sentiment that though you do not know the purpose of their time at the UN, you can be sure that they want to make a difference, just like you.
Right now, my home country, the United States, is deeply polarized and divided by a plethora of issues related to differences in political ideologies, seemingly never-ending racial tensions and clashes in viewpoints on religion, sexuality, women’s rights, LGBTQ rights, voting rights and so on. The list goes on and on. In the midst of all the bickering, insults and misunderstandings, we forget that our diversity is actually one of our strongest assets. After the incredibly disheartening and tumultuous presidential election season, I was itching to arrive at the United Nations again. I needed to find the hope that I had lost somewhere between the conclusion of the primary elections and Inauguration Day.
Spoiler alert: I found it. I found it in the people that I met at GIMUN who seek to bridge the divides in this world. When I look back on my time with my fellow journalists as well as the delegates, interpreters, and Chairs, I truly feel like we had one collective voice; a voice that unequivocally refused to accept hate, division and partisan political undertakings as the norm. We want solutions and I think that every single participant of the conference said in their own way: I want to help and I want in on the process. I have hope and am certain that everyone at this conference will play a role in making the world better for future generations. And the diversity of talent that I witnessed amongst the participants is what makes me certain of this. I could see many of them creating positive change throughout the world in many different ways may it be in the realms of governing, teaching, consulting, writing or even through music or art.
By now, I would hope that we have all come to terms with the fact that no one individual country or world leader can solve the pressing, urgent and dire issues of our world on their own. It will take all of us to have a hand in coming up with solutions. It will not be swift and it will not be easy, but if we want any chance at world peace, we need to put the arms down, lift our heads up and link hands in solidarity while understanding that peace-talks and negotiations will go further than any amount violence, intimidation or psychological warfare. I am humbled by my experience at GIMUN and while this conference was my last, the memories and lessons learned will be irrevocably everlasting.
Translated by Matthew Hall.
The period following the attempted coup d’état on 15 July 2016 in Turkey has been characterised by efforts to reshape our understanding of historic events. This historical revision is a regular occurrence in Turkish history since the foundation of the Republic in 1923 by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, who placed an emphasis on the pre-Islamic history of the Turkish people and considered that the Ottoman Empire was reactionary and needed to be consigned to the past. This wish to manipulate history saw a turning point through the arrival in power of the AKP (Justice and Development Party) in 2002. The AKP, which inherited the tradition of political Islam in Turkey, has positioned itself to be the voice of a majority that had been too often ignored and even held in contempt by the elites during Atatürk’s rule, and its takeover of political power allowed Turkey to reclaim the Islamic and Ottoman eras as their own. The increase of symbols representative of Ottoman power that are sometimes used as decorations, such as stickers on car windscreens and mobile phone cases, as well as the large number of cafes bearing the name ‘Ottoman’, the growth of ice-cream sellers dressed in clothing corresponding to the image that Europe has of the Ottoman Empire and the popularity of this style in furniture shops, feature among those of the imperial legacy that were previously suppressed. Read the rest of this entry »
By Lama El Khamy & Michelle Bognuda
@Lamaelk_GIMUN | @mbognuda_gimun
Alas, along with your final committee sessions comes our final issue. This conference had it all: fierce debates, laughs, and long queues (especially the fight for coffee!). We hope that your week has been as fun and successful as ours. The conference was filled with many surprises which made it all the more interesting, like for instance the opening ceremony concert. We have been graced with guest speakers and debates that have filled our brains with more information that we could ever ask for. Our last three guest speakers are featured in this issue, and we managed to get informative interviews with two of them.
Memories were made and friendships were created. Try to keep in touch with the people that you have encountered here, because they might just be the most important people you’ve ever met.
If you have not saved a copy of each of our issues and would like to see them again, do not worry, we have a solution for you. You can find us on the GIMUN website, or on GIMUN’s blog ‘UNO You Know’. We hope you enjoy your last read of the GIMUN Chronicles, 2017.
As a final word, we would like to share with you a quote from the eternal Dante Alighieri:
“Considerate la vostra semenza: fatti non foste a viver come bruti, ma per seguir virtute e canoscenza” (Inferno, XXVI)
“Consider well the seed that gave you birth: you were not made to live as brutes, but to follow virtue and knowledge” (Inferno, XXVI)
See our articles
Read more about it at https://issuu.com/nathborys/docs/friday_31st_march_gimun_newspaper
By Meryl Brucker & Valentina San Martin
La semaine bat son plein, commençant peu à peu à s’essouffler pour bientôt toucher à sa fin. Prochainement, cette 18ème édition du GIMUN 2017 s’inscrira dans les mémoires de chacun d’entre nous comme un souvenir figé dans le passé. Il est temps de prendre conscience qu’il ne nous reste plus que quelques heures pour profiter de l’ambiance intense des débats et de la solennité du Palais des Nations qui accueillait encore hier la présidente du Chili. Il est temps de prendre conscience que l’expérience humaine dans laquelle nous sommes plongés va bientôt se terminer, et que nous avons probablement manqué quelques occasions de rendre cette semaine encore plus inattendue et sans pareil qu’elle ne l’est déjà. Avez vous saisi la chance de parler à votre voisin qui vient peut-être de l’autre bout du monde et qui n’a pas eu le temps de vous raconter son histoire? Avez-vous eu l’opportunité de partager la diversité de vos opinions avec vos collègues? Dans cette avant-dernière édition, nous vous proposerons notamment de retrouver nos invités d’honneur Didier Péclard et Abel-Hamid Mamdouh. Enfin, il est temps de partager vos avis sur les grandes questions abordées lors de leurs discours. Au plaisir de vous retrouver sur les réseaux sociaux…
Read more about at https://issuu.com/nathborys/docs/thursday_march_30th_gimun_newspaper
By Lama El Khamy & Michelle Bognuda
@Lamaelk_GIMUN | @mbognuda_gimun
There were so many of them, and they all arrived in a mass. They came from all over, at different times and in different ways. Some were tired, some were excited. They were all anxious about what lied ahead. Mostly, they came, because they wanted to pave a better future for themselves and those that they cared about.
So many people wanted to cross the border, and not all of them managed to do it. Some had friends from within the walls and knew what to expect, others had no idea whatsoever of what they would find. They swarmed in, all at once, and the locals were overwhelmed.
However, everything turned to be fine. Indeed, it was an utter success. People from all over the world were together, in the same place, and they discussed freely. They exchanged different points of view and they learned from each other. After a week of debating they unfortunately had to leave the Palais des Nations, because the Annual Conference had come to an end. They
loved it though, and leaving was bittersweet. They left the UNOG as better versions of themselves. Their views and horizons were better and grander than they were on registration day at Uni-Bastions. They promised their new friends to keep in touch, and they promised themselves to apply to GIMUN again the year after.
* * *
Yes, dear delegates and staff, this introduction was indeed about the conference, and not about illegal immigrants. But, Marco Sassoli’s contribution to the Human Rights Committee yesterday struck a nerve with us, and we wanted to tease your mind. As you will see if you check our article about his speech, he talked about diversity and immigration, among other things. And he talked about legal immigration as a possibility of solving a lot of the problems that we hear about, like raft accidents and so forth. If you were not there, ask your friends who were to bring you up to speed.
So, work hard in your committees. Learn how to debate, and use this invaluable skill to tackle discussions and topics such as that of Mr. Sassoli, even with people who don’t have your same frame of mind. We need this now, more than ever. Or, as Director General Michael Møller said, tagging us on Twitter, “faites entendre votre voix, participez dans le débat”!
By Valentina San Martin & Meryl Brucker
@ValSanMar | @MerylBk_GIMUN
Depuis quelques heures, la conférence annuelle de GIMUN 2017 bat son plein. Vous-mêmes, participants, êtes au coeur de cette expérience qui ne fait que débuter. N’est-il pas excitant de savoir que les débats, mais aussi les évènements post-conférence, vont continuer à se succéder au cours de cette semaine, alors que les rencontres et les discussions ne feront que s’intensifier ? Les articles du jour aborderont des thèmes tout à fait sérieux comme les injections létales ou le maintien de la démocratie. Ceux-ci seront agrémentés de clichés de la journée d’hier ainsi que d’autres divertissements variés. De quoi certainement patienter en vue de se retrouver ce soir autour d’une boisson rafraîchissante pour éventuellement élargir les débats. En ce qui vous concerne, sachez, chers participants, que nous savons que vous avez oeuvré pour cette conférence et que le résultat qui s’ensuit n’a pu être possible que grâce à des efforts continuels de la part de chacun d’entre vous. Il est désormais temps d’en récolter les fruits ou plutôt de «manger le gâteau », comme l’a si bien dit notre cher Secrétaire Général, Charles Bonfils-Duclos, lors de sa dernière interview. Nous voulons que vous savouriez ce gâteau, que vous partagiez ce plaisir via Twitter, Instagram ou même Snapchat ! Nous comptons sur vous pour faire de cette conférence la meilleure expérience genevoise possible car vous l’avez bien mérité. Sur ce mot de la fin, nous aimerions vous remercier pour votre ouvrage.